Integrated circuit, also known as IC, chip, or microchip, is a miniature electronic circuit which was manufactured on the surface of a thin semiconductor material. It is used in almost all the useful electronic equipment nowadays such as computers, microwaves, phones, and other digital appliances. It can be divided into digital, analog and mixed signal. Digital chips are small in size, fast speed, low power loss, and cut the cost. Analog ICs can ease the burden on circuit design because they are working by processing continuous signals. Mixed signal combine digital and analog circuit on a single chip to perform functions well, such kind are smaller in size, lower cost, but must carefully account for signal interference.
Compared with discrete circuits, integrated circuit’s reliability, mass production capability, and building-block approach to circuit design ensured its adoption. Microprocessors or cores are the most advanced part of an integrated circuit. They control everything. The Random Access Memory is the most regular type of microchip, the highest density devices are thus memories, even a microprocessor will have memory on the chip. The structures are intricate since The layers are much thinner than the device with widths that have been shrinking for years.
Like other intellectual properties, ICs are the essence of human wisdom. They are utilized in a lot of products like television sets, watches, washing machines, automobiles, etc.. There is a continuing need for the creation of new designs that reduce the dimensions of existing integrated circuits and increase their functions at the same time. The smaller an integrated circuit is, the less the material needed for manufacture, and the fewer space needed to accommodate it.
Silicon is the most widely used material in designing a chip because it’s easy to process and has the perfect temperature range for electrical devices, as a matter of fact, it is used for almost every component of the IC. Though elements like gallium arsenide are applied to specialized areas like LEDs, lasers, solar cells and the highest speed integrated circuit.
To allowing more circuitry to be packed on each chip, ICs have consistently migrated to smaller feature sizes over the years. This increased capacity per unit area can be used to decrease cost and increase functionality. As the size shrinks, almost everything improves, like the cost per unit and the switching power consumption go down, the speed goes up. Older obsolete integrated circuits are still available from electronics components distributors