The 15 Most Popular Programming Languages to Learn in 2021

We human beings communicate using words, and likewise, computers use programming languages to communicate with programmers. And thus, we know that particular language as a programming language. Well, the meaning of language should be clear to you in order to understand programming language. So, let us first know the meaning of a language.

What is Language?

Well, language is a manner or a method of communication which is used by people to share their ideas, as well as opinions with each other. For example, we need to teach something in German then German is a language that should be understood by both the learner as well as the tutor.

What is a Programming Language?

A programming language can also be known to us as a software design language while knowing the programming languages which is a computer language used by programmers or people known as developers, they use this language to communicate with the computers. So, A programming language is a set of commands or orders which are written in any specific language such as C, C++, Java, Python used to perform a precise task.

Thus, a programming language is primarily used for the purpose of developing desktop applications, as well as for developing websites and developing mobile applications, as we study many programming languages used.

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Types of programming language

There exist 3 types of programming languages:

  • Low-level programming language
  • High-level programming language
  • Middle-level programming language

Now, let us discuss these Types of programming languages in detail.

1. Low-level programming language

While using coding languages we come across a Low-level programming language which is a machine-dependent programming language that uses 0 and 1 as input and output as commands as we study the programming languages. There is no need for a compiler or interpreter for processing low-level programs. Therefore, the programs which are written in low-level language can run very fast while studying the programming languages. We can divide the Low-level language into 2 parts as:

  • Machine Language, and
  • Assembly Language
  • Machine Language:

A type of low-level programming language is also referred to as Machine Language, which uses machine code or object code. This basic programming language is easy to read as it is displayed in binary or hexadecimal form. A user does not need a translator for converting this Machine Language program as it is easy as well as directly understood by the computer or machine. It further helps the programmers to execute the programs in programming languages.

  • Assembly Language:

Another type of low-level programming language is also referred to as Assembly Language, which is specifically designed for specific processors. set of instructions is depicted which are in a symbolic and human-understandable form. A user needs an assembler for the purpose of converting the assembly language to machine language.

2. High-level programming language

High-level programming language is also known out as software programming, which is especially used for developing user-friendly software programs as well as for developing websites. a compiler or interpreter is needed for using this High-level programming language as it translates the program into machine language. So, that you or the user can easily read, write, and maintain the computer or machine. Therefore, this High-level programming language comprises the following computer languages:

  • Python, Java
  • JavaScript
  • PHP
  • C#
  • C++
  • Objective C
  • Cobol
  • Perl
  • Pascal
  • LISP
  • FORTRAN, and
  • Swift programming language.

You can further divide a high-level language into three parts:

  • Procedural Oriented programming language
  • Object-Oriented Programming language
  • Natural language

Now, let us discuss this high-level language in detail.

  • Procedural Oriented programming language:

This Procedural Oriented programming language is a part of development languages that are used for the purpose of structured programming. Here, a program is divided into small procedures that we call up as routines or say functions. It is basically, a software programming language used by the software programmer to create a program that is used using a programming editor that includes programs like Adobe Dreamweaver, or such as Microsoft Visual Studio.

  • Example of Procedural Oriented programming language includes C, FORTRAN, Basic, as well as Pascal, etc.
  • Object-Oriented Programming language:

This language is based upon the objects and is thus also known as OOP language. While language programming is done the program of the machine is divided into small packets that we call up as objects. Though, it is easy to execute, maintain, and also to modify.

  • Example of Object-Oriented Programming language includes polymorphism, abstraction, etc
  • Natural language:

We can also refer to natural language as human languages, which is used by humans and understood as well as interpreted by a computer or the machine. All the tasks such as translation, automatic summarization, segmentation of topics, etc are done by this natural language only.

  • Example of Natural language includes English, Russian, German, and Japanese

3. Middle-level programming language

This language of programming lies between the low-level programming language and high-level programming language, and therefore this language used by programmers is known out as intermediate programming language and pseudo-language.

Most popular programming languages:

Now, let us see some of the most popular programming languages as:

  • Python
  • Java
  • C
  • C++
  • C#
  • JavaScript
  • R
  • PHP
  • Go
  • Ruby

Now, let us discuss these most popular programming languages in detail.

1. Python

Python- best programming languages

If we talk about the python programming language, then we can say that python language is one of the most widely used programming languages. This programming language was developed in the 1990s. It is easy to read, understand as well as write. You can also integrate this language with other programming languages as C, C++, and Java. A programmer can easily find an error in the programming as it is executed line by line. Once the code is written the codes used in python programming can be used everywhere.

Basic Uses:

Back end development

Data science

App development

Who uses Python programming language?

  • Used by Professions and Industries:
  • Python developers
  • software engineers
  • back end developers
  • Python programmers
  • information technology
  • engineering
  • professional services and
  • design

  • Used by Key Organizations:
  • Google
  • Pinterest
  • Instagram
  • YouTube
  • DropBox
  • NASA
  • ESRI

  • Used by Specializations and Businesses:
  • Web and Internet development
  • numeric computing
  • desktop graphical user interfaces (GUIs)
  • scientific work

Advantages of Python programming language:

  • It is easy to read, understand as well as write.
  • You can also integrate this language with other programming languages as C, C++, and Java.
  • A programmer can easily find an error in the programming as it is executed line by line.
  • Once the code is written the codes used in python programming can be used everywhere.

Disadvantages of Python programming language:

  • Users cannot use Python programming language while developing mobile applications and games.
  • This programming language is slower compared to other programming languages.

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2. Java

Java is also the best coding language to learn as it is simple and secure high-level programming which is developed by Sun Microsystems in 1995, although now Oracle owns Java.

Basic Uses:

  • E-commerce
  • Finance
  • App development

Who uses Java programming language?

  • Used by Professions and Industries:
  • Software engineers
  • Java developers
  • Used by employers in communications education
  • Finance
  • health sciences
  • hospitality
  • retail and utilities

  • Used by Major Organizations: 
  • V2COM
  • Eclipse Information Technologies
  • eBay
  • Eurotech

  • Used by Specializations and Businesses: 
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Enterprise Architecture
  • Cloud Computing

Advantages of Java programming language:

  • This programming language is easy to learn, compile as well as debug.
  • Java programming language is able to run a similar database on different platforms.
  • This programming language is highly secured.
  • Multiple tasks can be performed using the Java programming language.

Disadvantages of Java programming language:

  • Java programming language is somewhat slower than other programming languages.
  • A backup facility is not provided in this programming language.

3. C

C programming language is developed by Dennis M Ritchie in 1972 and is a simple language. It uses low-level programming language and that too with high-level programming language. Some of the common applications used are as:

  • Text Editors
  • Compilers
  • Network devices

Basic Uses:

  • E-commerce
  • Software development
  • Engineering

Who uses the C programming language?

  • Used by Professions and Industries:
  • Software developers
  • computer engineers
  • business and systems analysts
  • IT and Web content administrators
  • embedded software engineers
  • Used by employers in Information Technology
  • employers in Engineering
  • employers in Management
  • employers in healthcare and
  • employers in Professional Services

  • Used by Major Organizations:
  • Microsoft
  • Apple
  • Oracle
  • Cisco
  • Raytheon

  • Used by Specializations and Businesses: 
  • Embedded Systems
  • Systems Programming
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Industrial Automation
  • Computer Graphics
  • Space Research
  • Image Processing and
  • Game Programming

Advantages of C programming language:

  • This programming language is easy to learn.
  • This programming language is powerful as well as flexible.
  • Some complex calculations are performed using a C programming language.

Disadvantages of C programming language:

  • Error detection is very difficult in this programming language.
  • The abstraction function is not supported.

4. C++

c++

C++ is similar to the C programming language which is developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1980. It is just like other coding languages. Though, it is a simple and portable programming language.

Who uses the C++ programming language?

  • Professions and Industries:
  • C++ software engineers
  • C++ software developers
  • embedded engineers
  • programmer analysts
  • Used by employers in Information Technology
  • Engineering
  • Professional Services
  • Design
  • Quality Control and Management

  • Major Company and Organization Users: 
  • Google
  • Mozilla
  • Firefox
  • Winamp
  • Adobe Software
  • Amazon
  • Lockheed Martin

  • Specializations: 
  • System/application software
  • Drivers
  • Client-server applications
  • Embedded firmware

Advantages of programming language:

  • It is a simple and portable programming language.
  • It is well-suited with the c language.
  • It is used for general purposes.

Disadvantages of C++ programming language:

  • Large web applications are difficult to debug.
  • It does not support garbage collection.

5. C#

C# is a modern as well as an object-oriented programming language which is used with XML based Web services. The web applications productivity is improved using this programming language. It is easy to learn for programmers having knowledge of C, C++, or Java.

Basic Uses:

  • Game development
  • Desktop/web/mobile apps
  • VR

Who uses the C# programming language?

  • Professions and Industries:
  • C# developers
  • automation test engineers
  • software engineers
  • senior .net Web developers
  • Used by employers in Information Technology
  • employers in Engineering
  • employers in Design
  • employers in Professional Services
  • employers in Management and Quality Control

  • Major Organizations: 
  • Microsoft Intel
  • Hewlett Packard

  • Specializations: 
  • Windows-based platforms

Advantages of C# programming language:

  • It is an open-source programming language.
  • This programming language is object-oriented based.
  • It has a facility of a strong memory backup.

Disadvantages of C# programming language:

  • This language is less flexible as it is based on Microsoft .Net framework.
  • C# programming language is difficult to debug as well as write.

6. JavaScript

JavaScript is known to be the most commonly used language and that too in the whole world. JavaScript programming language has usage on a client as well as on a server and is therefore referred to as a type of scripting language. It is easy to understand language, with which users can create striking, as well as dynamic websites, and rich interfaces.

Basic Uses:

  • Web development
  • Game development
  • Mobile apps
  • Building web servers

Who uses JavaScript programming language?

  • Used by Professions and Industries:
  • JavaScript developers
  • Web developers
  • software engineers

  • Used by employers in Information Technology
  • employers in Engineering
  • employers in Design
  • employers in Marketing
  • employers in Finance and
  • employers in healthcare

  • Used by Major Organizations: 
  • WordPress
  • Soundcloud
  • Khan Academy
  • Linkedin
  • Groupon
  • Yahoo

  • Used by Specializations and Businesses:
  • Front End Website Development
  • Gaming Development

Advantages of JavaScript programming language:

  • This language is easy to learn.
  • It even has Multiple frameworks.
  • Users can manipulate various page elements in the javascript programming language.
  • Users can create striking, as well as dynamic websites, and rich interfaces.

Disadvantages of JavaScript programming language:

  • Multiple inheritances are not supported in this programming language.
  • Javascript programming language is not secured.

7. R

R programming language is amongst the best programming language to learn which is used in data analytics, and also in doing scientific research, as well as for machine learning algorithms, and statistical computing.

Basic Uses:

  • Web development
  • scientific research
  • algorithms
  • Building web servers

Who uses the R programming language?

  • Used by Professions and Industries:
  • Web developers
  • software engineers

Advantages of R programming language:

  • Support for Data Wrangling is provided by the R programming language.
  • Various platforms like Windows, Linux, and Mac uses as well as run on this programming language.

Disadvantages of R programming language:

  • 3D graphics are not supported in the R programming language.

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8. PHP

php

The Hypertext Preprocessor is also known as PHP. This programming language is mostly used to create dynamic websites. It is more secure amongst the other sequel programming languages as well as easy to understand. HTML, CSS, and JavaScript code can also be written down in the PHP language. It uses .php as file extension.

Who uses PHP programming language?

  • Professions and Industries:
  • PHP developers
  • PHP software engineers
  • Information Technology Engineering
  • Design
  • Professional Services
  • Healthcare
  • Management and Finance

  • Major Organizations: 
  • Facebook
  • Yahoo
  • CyberCoders
  • NextGen

  • Specializations: 
  • Web Application Development
  • Server-Side Scripting
  • Command Line Scripting

Advantages of PHP programming language:

  • It is more secure amongst the other sequel programming languages.
  • It is an easy-to-understand language.
  • It can be used on several operating systems.

Disadvantages of PHP programming language:

  • It cannot handle a large number of applications.
  • Maintaining this language is difficult.

9. Go

If we talk about a top-tier programming language then here we have to Go as the one, which is capable of executing several processes, and as a programming language Go displays more results or more information than any other programming language.

Basic Uses:

  • System/network programming
  • Audio/video editing
  • Big Data

Who uses the Go programming language?

  • Professions and Industries:
  • Information Technology Engineering
  • Design
  • Professional Services
  • Healthcare
  • Management and Finance

Advantages of Go programming language:

  • It is easy to understand as well as use language.
  • This language is a fast programming language.

Disadvantages of Go programming language:

  • Error handling is not supported.
  • There are no frameworks.

10. Ruby

Ruby programming language can be used for the development of the internet as well as intranet applications. And it supports GUI (Graphical User Interface).

Who uses Ruby programming language?

  • Used by Professions and Industries:
  • Ruby on Rails developers
  • software engineers
  • data science engineers
  • Used by employers in technology
  • employers in engineering
  • employers in professional services
  • employers in design
  • employers in science and
  • employers in quality control

  • Used by Major Organizations: 
  • Github
  • Scribd
  • Groupon
  • NASA Langley Research Center
  • Blue Sequence (part of Toyota Motor Manufacturing)
  • Motorola
  • Google (SketchUp)

  • Used by Specializations and Businesses: 
  • Web App Development
  • Robotics
  • Networking
  • System Administration and
  • Security

Advantages of Ruby programming language:

  • GUI (Graphical User Interface) is supported.
  • It can be used for the development of the internet as well as intranet applications.
  • There are a smaller number of lines involved in programming.

Disadvantages of Ruby programming language:

  • It is slower compared to other programming languages.

11. HTML

It is a standard markup language that is used to create web pages with the usage of proper formatting of text and images.

Basic Uses:

  • Web documents
  • Website development
  • Website maintenance

Who uses HTML programming language?

  • Used by Professions and Industries:
  • Web developers
  • technical editors
  • email designers
  • software engineers
  • Used by employers in Information Technology
  • employers in Engineering
  • employers in Design
  • employers in Professional Services
  • employers in Management
  • employers in Marketing
  • employers in Customer Services and
  • employers in Sales

  • Used by Major Organizations: 
  • Apple
  • CyberCoders
  • Apex Systems
  • CareerBuilder

  • Used by Specializations and Businesses:
  • Web Development
  • Email Programming

Advantages of HTML programming language:

  • It is useful for creating electronic documents or pages.

Disadvantages of HTML programming language:

  • It is time-consuming language.

12. CSS

CSS as language is commonly used with HTML programming language, where text is organized into chunks and thus elements of the page is determined by using CSS language only.

Basic Uses:

  • Web documents
  • Website development
  • Website design

Who uses CSS programming language?

  • Used by Professions and Industries:
  • technical editors
  • Web developers
  • email designers
  • employers in Design
  • employers in Professional Services
  • employers in Marketing

  • Used by Specializations and Businesses:
  • Web Development
  • Email Programming

Advantages of CSS programming language:

  • It is an approachable language.

Disadvantages of CSS programming language:

  • It is commonly used with HTML programming language.

13. SQL

A database query language can also be referred to as SQL programming language, which is used for accessing and managing content.

Basic Uses:

  • Database management
  • Sales reports
  • Business management

Who uses SQL programming language?

  • Professions and Industries:
  • SQL Server developers
  • database testers
  • software developers
  • database administrators
  • Information Technology industry
  • Engineering, Design industry
  • Management industry
  • Professional Servers industry
  • Business and Finance industry

  • Major Organizations: 
  • companies and organizations
  • Robert Half Technology
  • Nigel Frank
  • CyberCoders and
  • UnitedHealthCare.

  • Specializations: 
  • Data Analysis and
  • Big Data Mining

Advantages of SQL programming language:

  • It uses simple syntax.
  • It is free.
  • Users can have easy access to it.

14. NoSQL

nosql

NoSQL is also known as Non-relational SQL which was created for improving the improve SQL’s scalability. Users can keep data in a table. Further, users can also manipulate and extract data. 

Basic Uses:

  • Database management
  • Sales reports
  • Business management

Who uses the NoSQL programming language?

  • Professions and Industries:
  • database testers
  • software developers

Advantages of NoSQL programming language:

  • Users can keep data in a table.
  • Users can also manipulate and extract data. 

15. Rust

Amongst all programming languages rust is included amongst the most-loved programming languages, as it is a multi-paradigm programming language. It offers faster compilation, as well as better cross-platform capabilities.

Basic Uses:

  • Operating systems
  • VR
  • Web browsers

Who uses Rust programming language?

  • Web developers
  • Website designers

Advantages of Rust programming language:

  • It offers faster compilation.
  • It offers better cross-platform capabilities.

Other Programming Languages

Some of the Other common Programming Languages used are as:

  • Dart
  • Kotlin
  • MATLAB
  • Scala

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Frequently Asked Questions related to programming languages:

  • What are the 4 types of programming language?

The 4 types of programming language are:

  • Procedural Programming Language.
  • Functional Programming Language.
  • Scripting Programming Language.
  • Logic Programming Language.
  • Object-Oriented Programming Language.
  • What are the 5 main programming languages?

The 5 main programming languages are:

  • Python
  • Java
  • C
  • C++
  • JavaScript
  • What are the two major types of programming languages?

The two major types of programming languages are:

  • High-level language.
  • Low-level language
  • What languages are used for programming?

Some of the common languages are used for programming are as:

  • Python is used for the purpose of Artificial Intelligence and also for Machine Learning.
  • JavaScript used for the purpose of Rich Interactive Web Development.
  • Java is used for the purpose of Enterprise Application Development.
  • R used for the purpose of Data Analysis.
  • C / C++ is used for the purpose of Operating Systems and also for System Tools. 
  • Golang is used for the purpose of Server-Side Programming.
  • C# used for the purpose of Application and also for Web Development Using

Conclusion:

learning a new language and that too a computer coding is a good way to focus on your career and educational path way. And thus, A programming language such as C, C++, Java, Python used to perform a precise task. So, a programming language is primarily used for the purpose of developing desktop applications, as well as for developing websites and developing mobile applications.

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